Monday, May 6, 2013



There are three Prasthanams - Upanishatprasthanam, Sutraprasthanam and Gitaprasthanam. Of the three, Upanishatprasthanam is not only the first to evolve but also enjoys the highest philosophical status as it happens to be the essence of the Vedas.

The first part of the Vedas, the Brahmanas, asserts the importance of Karma while the second part, the Upanishads, stresses the need for Jnana for the purpose of emancipation. Also, the realization of Atman becomes possible through listening to the Upanishads, argumentation and contemplation.

आत्मा वा Sरे द्रष्टव्य: श्रोतव्यो मन्तव्यो निदिध्यासितव्य:
( बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद् २//)

The word Upanishad is derived form the root 'shad' and the two prefixes 'Upa' and 'Ni' which together mean the Guru's proximity.

It is a curious fact that 'Upanishad' is also derived from the root 'shad' meaning gati, the movement, as it leads the listener to the highest goal which is realization of Almighty. There is still another meaning for the same root 'shad' - destruction - destruction of the innate ignorance of man and leading him to enlightenment and the Upanishadic salvation.

Contrary to popular thinking that the study of the Vedanta is unnecessary as it deals with metaphysical matters which are of no day-to-day use, and that the Upanishadic teachings are highly esoteric and they are beyond the pale of the common man, Upanishads are not for the work-a-day world but they formulate a firm ground for the evolution of humanity into divinity.

Upanishads are also intended to convey high morals and supreme self-restraint for the purpose of achieving the highest human goal,i.e., self-realization. In our tradition, that exercise which ordains man to do good and to be kind is consiered to be the real sastra. The Upanishads are the very reflection of the human mind - elevated ethically, morally, socially and spiritually.In short, they embody practical wisdom. It is said that man, if he assimilates the Upanishads and puts them into practice faithfully, becomes almost a divine being.
Though there are over a hundred Upanishads, only ten are considered highly significant as only these ten were exhaustively discussed by Sankara who drew upon the Upan6ishads incuding Kaushitaki and Swetaswatara.

Scholars differ on the chronology of the Upanishads and hence, without going into the controversies, the traditional order is followed here. th usual order is Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka. In doing so, specific reference to Andhras' contribution to Advaita Vedanta is attempted in what follows.


This Upanishad, belonging to the Yajurveda, has 18 verses and has the distinction of being the oldest. In this Upanishad, we find a wonderful synthesis of Karma and Jnana leading to emancipation. However, Sankara differed from this idea. According to him, the different parts of the verses are for different personalities - some for seekers of Atmajnana, while the rest are for the others. As for Karma and Jnana, Sankara stresses that the two paths for emancipation are mutually contradictory and hence cannot be practised simultaneously. Karma is superficial and extensive, while Jnana is an in-depth aid to Moksha.

While Sankara's idealistic thinking about the Upanishad deserves reverence, it is not sacrilegious to look into what some modern thinkers say about the Upanishad. For example, Mahatma Gandhi says "I have now come to a final
conclusion that if all the other scriptures happened all of a sudden to be reduced to ashes and if only the first verse of the Upanishad were left intact in the memory of the Hindus, Hinduism would be forever". The substance of the first verse of Isavasya is as follows - "All this world consists of animates and inanimates and is encompassed by the Lord. Enjoyment comes to you through renunciation of what you possess. Don't covet others' riches".

The purport of this mantra is that all our resources, whether physical or intellectual, are given by God and they are His property. Therefore, we must enjoy whatever we have for our survival and leave the rest for others' enjoyment. The idea of "live and let live" is highlighted in this mantra. Isavasya further says that man should live for his allotted span of life performing good deeds. This is the only way for man to achieve detachment and extricate himself from the purely mundane attachments.

In addition to those ideas of Sankara, there are inspiring commentaries on Sankara's ideas.
. Isavasya has five commentaries Deepika, Bhashya, Vivarana, Rahasya and Tika and the commentaries of them are also named Chintamani, Deepika, Viveka, Vivriti, and Vyakhya.

Let us now have a look at a few scholars from Andhra who have remarkable works to their credit.

ANANDAGIRI (A.D.1260-1320) :

Anandagiri (also known as Janardana), who became the head of the Dwaraka mutt after embracing sanyasa, wrote an exhaustive commentary on Isavasyopanishad following in the lines of Sankara.
VIDYARANYA (A.D.1296-1386) :

Son of Mayana and Sumathi and the maternal uncle of Lakshmidhara, author of Advitamakaranda, Vidyaranya wrote many famous works such as Vivaranaprameyasangraha and Panchadasi. The original name of Vidyaranya was Madhavacharya and, due to the acquisition of sanyasasrama, he came to be known as Vidyaranya. He was the eighth head of Sringeri [ from A.D.1380-1386]
According to Guruvamsakavya of Kasi Lakshmana Sastry [ court pundit of Sri Satchidananda Bharati], a Brahmin, native of Orugallu [ the present Warrangal ] had.two sons. The younger of the two having deserted the world embraced sanyasa through Vidyatirtha and came to be known as Bharati Krishnatirtha, and settled at Sringeri. After three years, his older brother who, in search of him, came across Vidyatirtha and in a fortuitous situation took sanyasaasrama himself and hence came to be known as Vidyaranya. This Vidyaranya wrote a wonderful commentary on the Isavasya which is considered to be the best among the commentaries on that Upanishad.


Sadasivabrahmendrayati was an eminent Advaitin and a yogi of Andhradesa. He studied Vedanta under Ramabhadra Sastry and gained profound knowledge in the Prasthanatraya and the six systems of Indian philosophy. He wrote a very good commentary on Isavasya Upanishad.


Upanishadbrahmendrayogi wrote commentaries on as many as 108 Upanishads. His Isavasyavivaranam, a commentary on Isavasya, is on Sankara's lines, and gives a comprehensive gist of Advaita philosophy.


Advaitanandatirtha, a disciple of Sadanandatirtha and son of Madhavasuri and Mahalakshmi, was Kurunganti Subrahmanya Sastry before his accepting the ascetic life. He wrote three works among which Panchopanishattatparya deepika is of a special genre . He wrote commentaries on Isa, Kena, Katha, Prasna and Mundaka Upanishads. This work was published by Bramhavidya press,. and is also known as Advaitanandalahari.


Among the post-Sankara Advatins, Bellamkonda Ramarayakavi's contribution to Advaita Vedanta is most remarkable. He was the son of Mohanaraya and Hanumayamma who were the residents of Pamidipadu Agrahara near Narsaraopeta of Guntur district.

In Dr.K.S.Dutta's words, "he [Ramarayakavi] is to be considered one of the most important post-Sankara advaitins of recent times and he had the same scholastic calibre as Vachaspati Misra and Madhusudanasaraswathi". For this reason, Ramarayakavi was also called Apara Sankara by his contemporaries. He produced more that 100 works within his short life time of 38 years. His works on Advaita Vedanta outnumbered those on other branches which constitute an important contribution to Indian philosophy. He wrote Vedantamukthavali in which he gave the essence of all Upanishads in Sardula metre of composition. While commenting on the Upanishads he followed the Advaita approach of Sankara. A sloka from the Isavasya written by Ramarayakavi is given here.

ईशावास्यमिदं समस्तभुवनं त्यक्त्वार्थगेहादिकं
ब्रह्मण्येन मुमुक्षुणाSनवरतं निष्ठा विधॆयाSSत्मनि |
अर्हत्वाय च तत्र कर्म विहितं कार्यं पुरा निष्फलं
विद्वानित्थमुपाचरन् हि भजते निर्लेप आत्माSश्वरम् ||

(This universe can be imagined as a personification of the Almighty and hence it is His property. We have no business to trespass this sacred empire. The minimum we should do to preserve the sanctity is not to covet others' possessions. Further, we should carry out the duties allotted to us by the Almighty without expecting any reward for it. That, in essence, is the path to salvation.)

Having had a glance of original Sanskrit works, let us now turn to the great works in Telugu.

Atmanandayogi, who lived in the last quarter of the 19th century, translated Isavasya into Telugu. He brought out all the Advaitic tenets contained in the Upanishads in lucid verses and songs and simple language without attempting at their literal translation [which would probably have marred the beauty of the original].

Pantula Lakshminarayana Sastry, translated Isavasya along as well as Kena, Katha and Prasna into beautiful Telugu verses. His work is considered to be one of the outstanding works in Telugu on Advaita.

Charla Ganapathi sastry, who lived in the 20th century, has translated Isavasya and other three Upanishads, Kena, Katha and Prasna. He closely followed the original text. His work is known as Upanishat Sudha.

Pisupati Narayana Sastry (A.D.1900-1967) has translated Isavasya along as also eleven other Upanishads into Telugu. His work is called Andhradwadasopanishattulu.

V.Sundara Rama Sarma of the 20th century wrote word-to-word meaning and paraphrase of Isavasya and two other Upanishads, Katha and Aitareya.

Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu of the 20th century translated Isavasya and nine other Upanishads in chaste Telugu in prose form. He also translated Swetaswatara and Kaivalya with explanatory notes strictly following Advaita interpretation.

Kanuparthi Markandeya Sastry, who lived in the 20th century, translated Isavasya into beautiful Telugu in verse format. His work, Srimadandhropanishadjnanadipika, unfolds the very heart of Sri Sankaracharya's conception and stands out as one of the best works in Telugu on Advaita.

Isavasyopanishad was also translated by Kompella Dakshinamurthy Sastry and it was published by Sri Sita Rama Adi Sankara Trust in Hyderabad.

Another notable commentary of Vithaladevuni Sundara Sarma was published by Surabharathi Samithi of Hyderabad.


This Upanishad belongs to Tavalkara Brahmana of the Samaveda and is in two parts, half verse and half prose. The emphasis of this Upanishad is on the illusory nature of the senses. The concept of Brahman is not what the senses ordinarily grasp. But it can only be realized by itself. This Upanishad is known as Kenopanishad since the first word of the first verse is 'Kena' which means " by whom.".

Sankara wrote two commentaries on this Upanishad Padabhashya (commentary on the words) and Vakyabhashya (commentary on the sentences).

Anandagiri wrote Bhashyatippani on this Upanishad and it was published in Anandasrama Press.

Another notable commentator, Upanishadbrahmendrayogi, wrote a
commentary named Vivaranam which gives the quintessence of Kenopanishad and was published by the world famous Adyar Library.

Bellamkonda Ramaraya Kavi wrote the gist of Kenopanishad in his Vedantamukthavali strictly following in the lines of Sankara.

A sloka from the Kenopanishad written by Ramarayakavi reads:.

यस्यानुग्रहतो विजिग्युरसुरानिन्द्रादयो देवता:
शक्नोति स्म तृणं न दग्धुमनल: क्षेप्तुं च नैवानिल: |
यस्यानुग्रहवर्णनादधिगतं देवैरुमाभाषिता
द्यक्षाकारपदं च यल्लसति तद्विद्योतनं विद्युताम् | |

(The supremacy of Atman (read Almighty) is such that only through Its benediction Devas could conquer the demons. Its grace lets fire glow and air move; and even the Gods could become Gods only through Its grace. Let that Supreme Atman shine eternally.)

Here are some commentaries written in Telugu on the Kenopanishad.
Atmanandayogi - Upanishattulu
Kanuparthi Markendaya sastry - Srimadandhropanishdjnanadipika
Charla Ganapathi Sastry - Upanishad Sudha.

Similarly Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu of the 20th century wrote a commentary with explanatory notes strictly following Advaita interpretation.

Prof.P.Ramachandrudu of the present century wrote a commentary on the Kenopanishad consisting of Pratipadartha and Tatparya following in the lines of Sankara.


Katopanishad is one of the oldest Upanishads belonging to the Taittiriya School of Yajurveda. The Upanishad elaborates the experiences of Nachiketa : his trip to the nether world, and his encounter with Yama who anointed the knowledge of Brahman on him. A special feature of the Upanishad is that most of its verses and ideas are found in the popular Bhagavad Gita verbatim. Many works were composed by many poets basing on this Upanishad.


We now turn from the original works to commentaries and translations.

Anandagiri's commentary on this Upanishad was published by Anandasrama Press.

Upanishadbrahmendra yogi wrote an exciting commentary, Arthaprakasika following in the lines of Sankaracharya and this was published in Adayar library.
Bellamkonda Ramarayakavi wrote Vedantamuktavali in which a gist of Kathopanishad was given also following in the lines of Sankara..
Here is a sloka of Ramaraya from the Kathopanishad.

तिष्ठन्तं त्वनवस्थितासु तनुषु स्वात्मानमेकं विभु:
यो देहं च महास्तमेति कुशलस्सोSयं न शोचत्यपि |
नो लभ्य: प्रवचोभिरेष पुरुषो नो मेधया न श्रुतै:
आत्मप्रार्थनया शमादिसहितं ज्ञानेन लभ्य: पुन:||

(Atman is that which, though resident of the body, is, unlike the body, indestructable, cannot be realized through didactic acts, is beyond the brain power and is self-created.)


Pantula Lakshminarayanasastry who belongs to the 20th century wrote a commentary-cum-translation. His work is called Andhrakathopanishad. While
translating the Upanishad, he closely followed the story part of the original text and translated the whole commentary of Sankara adding some explanations here and there. The work is considered to be a monument among the translations of the Kathopanishad.

Kanuparthi MarkandeyaSastry authored Srimadandhropanishadjnanadeepam. He bore in mind the views of Sankara while translating the Kathopanishad.

Other translators include Charla Ganapathi Sastry (Upanishadsudha), Pisapati NarayanaSastry (Andhradwadasopanishattulu), V.SundararamaSarma, Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu and MalayalaSwamy.


This Upanishad belongs to Atharvaveda. It is called Prasnopanishad because it consists of highly philosophical and intriguing questions.

1) What is the ultimate cause of the world?
2) What is the nature of the Supreme Being?
3) What are the nature and power of the sound Om?
4) What is the relation of the Supreme Being to the mundane world?
This Upanishad is more in prose form than in verse. Its commentaries include :-
Anandagiri's Bhashyatippani.
Upanishadbrahmendrayogi's Vivarana.
Bellamkonda Ramarayakavi's Vedantamukthavali.

Here is a sloka of Ramarayakavi from the Prasnopanishad.

स्थूलं जागरितं ह्यकारमयते विश्वं च वैश्वानरं
सूक्ष्मं स्वप्नमुपेति तैजसमथो हैरण्यगर्भात्मकम् |
मायां सुप्तिपदं च यं कलयते प्राज्ञं च योSपीश्वरं
प्राज्ञा यं न हि कम्पते भवति यत्सर्वात्मभूत: पुमान् ||

(The divine symbol 'AUM' has three attributes - 'A', 'U' and 'M'. The wakeful state is identified with 'A', the dreaming state, with 'U' and the deep sleep with 'M'. A fourth state, both different from and a remnant after the demolition of 'A', 'U' and 'M', is identified with Atman.)


Atmanandayogi - Upanishattulu
Charla Ganapathi Sastry - Upinishat sudha
Pisapati Narayana Sastry - Andhradwadasopanishattulu
Pullela Sriramachandrudu - Prasnopanishad
(with pratipadartha and tatparya)
Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu - Upanishaddarsanamu.
Kanuparthi Markandeyasastry - Srimad Andhropanishadjnanadeepamu.


This Upanishad is a part of Atharvaveda and its main purpose is to distinguish between higher knowledge (Paravidya) and lower knowledge (Aparavidya). This Upanishad asserts that Atmajnana (the knowledge of Brahman) can be realized through renunciation and not acquisition of worldly objects. This Upanishad consists of three chapters available in two parts. Among them who wrote commentaries on the Upanishad may be picked up the following.

Anandagiri's commentary on Mundakopanishad.
Upanishadbrahmendrayogi's Vivarana.
Ramarayakavi's Vedantamukthavali.

A sloka from Mundakopanishad authored by Ramaraya reads :

तन्तूनुद्वमति स्वयं गिलति वा कावूर्णनाभिर्यथा
भूतान्युत्सृजति प्रसंहरति च स्वस्मिन् स्वयं ब्रह्म तत् |
भूम्यामोषधिवज्जगद्भवति च ब्रह्मण्यधो लीयते
देहान्मूर्धजलोमवस्थितिभृतां लोकोSक्षराज्जायते ||

(Just as a spider disengages its woven web or devours it at its pleasure, Atman creates as well as destroys the world. Just as trees sprout from the earth and ultimately dwindle and disappear, this ever-changing world has sprung from the unchanging or Perpetual Brahman.)

The following are the translators :
Atmananda yogi.
Charla Ganapathi Sastry .
Pisupati Narayana Sastry.
Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu.

This Upanishad also belongs to Atharvaveda and it comprises 12 mantras. The sage Mundaka is believed to be the exponent of this Upanishad. The Upanishad helps one to comprehend the significance of the word Om through which Atmajnana can be achieved. There are also Karikas on this Upanishad by Gaudapada who was the paramaguru (teacher's teacher) of Sankaracharya.

The Karikas are in four chapters:

The first chapter, Agamaprakarana , explains, that ' Om ' is conducive to self- knowledge and deals with scriptures.
The second chapter, Vaitathyaprakarana, shows the unreality of duality on the analogy of the rope and snake.
The third chapter, Advaitaprakarana ,shows the reality of non-duality by reasoning.

The fourth chapter, Alatasanthi, adduces arguments and refutes those systems that hold views conflicting with Advaita.


Anandagiri wrote a commentary on the Sankarabhashya of Mandukyopanishad and the same was published through Anandasrama Sanskrit series.

Upanishadbrahmendrayogi wrote a commentary
Mandukyavivaranam on Sankara's Bhashya on Mandukyopanishad.
Ramarayakavi also composed a commentary on this Upanishad.

An important verse of Ramaraya from Mandukyopanishad reads as follows :

यो ब्रह्मात्मतुरीयपाद इति सद्वैतोपशान्तिश्शिवोS
द्वैतश्चाव्यहार्य एष परमॊंकारो ह्यमात्र: पुन: |
ओंकारो विदुषोदित: प्रविशति स्वात्मानमात्मैव स
न्नेवं वेद य एष आत्मनि गतो नो वा पुनर्जायते||

(One experiences the natural three states of wakefulness, dream state and deep sleep. Atman is to be understood as a fourth state which, however, is not new but is something that remains by obliterating their attributes. One who realizes this supreme truth will be bereft of the cycle of births and deaths.)
Let us now have a brief survey of the translators :
Chirravuri Subrahmanyakavi's (19th century) translation of this Upanishad has 17 verses based on the doctrine of Sankara.

Atmanandayogi's [ last quarter of the 19th century] translation is in the form of verses and songs.
Pisupati Narayana sastry who lived between A.D. 1900-1967 was another notable translator.
Nori Sirnatha Venkata Somayajulu's [ 20th century] translation is in prose.
Prof.Pullella Sriramachandrudu of this century wrote a commentary consisting of Pratipadartha and Tatparya on this Upanishad.


The Taittiriyopanishad forms part of the Taittiriyaranyaka of the Black Yajurveda. The first chapter Sikshavalli is sometimes referred to as the Samhitopanishad and the latter two chapters together are called Varuni upanishad.

Sankaracharya wrote a commentary on the Taittiriyopanishad. This Upanishad has a speciality in that. Sureswaracharya, the disciple of Sankara, wrote Vartikas on this Upanishad basing on the Bhashya of Sankara. His work is known as Taittriyopanishadbhashyavartikam.

There are many commentaries on the Upanishad and here is a list of them:
Anandagiri's - Taittiriyavartikavyakhya.
Vidyaranya's - Laghudeepika
Advaitanandatirtha's - Taittiriyopanishdbhashya
Ramarayakavi's Vedantamukthavali embodies the essence of the Taittiriyopanishad in Sardula metre and follows in the lines of Sankara.

A verse of Ramaraya from the Taittiriyopanishad is given here for its sheer beauty.

सत्यं त्वं वद धर्ममाचर कृधां मा च प्रमादं क्वचित्
कर्तव्यं गुरवस्त्वयाप्यतिथय: पूज्या: परं मातर:|
निन्द्यं मा कुरु कर्म पूजय धिया श्रॆष्ठान् ह्रिया श्रद्धया
भीत्या तत्पदवीमनुव्रज गुरु: शिष्यं प्रशिक्षे दिशि||
(This sloka's injunction encompasses all the age-old virtues - truth, charity, devotion to one's duty, obeisance to teachers and parents and all such noble duties.)

Rayaprolu Lingana Somayaji's Kalyana Vivarana is a commentary on Sankarabhashya related to this Upanishad. His commnentary is racy and gives the gist of Taittiriyopanishad. It was published by Sarada Press Bhatnavalli.

Now a look at the commentaries in Telugu :-

Atmanandayogi (19th century) translated Taittiriyopanishad into verses and songs.
Pisupati Narayanasastry (A.D.1900-1967) translated this Upanishad very carefully without deviating from the original.
Nori Srinatha Venkata somayajulu ( 20th century) translated this Upanishad following in the lines of Advaita.


This Upanishad belongs to the Rigveda and is known as Atmashatka since it runs into six chapters. This Upanishad describes the Brahman as Creator, Sustainer and Destroyer, the universal Three-in-One. It also describes the plight of the jiva during his foetal stage in the mother's womb. This ordeal generates in the human kind a sense of distress followed by frustration and vairagya. As a natural follow-up, the Upanishad enjoins man to plead with Brahman for liberating him from the painful cycle of births and deaths. We have an ennobling commentary on this Upanishad by Sankara.

Other commentators and their works are given below :
Anandagiri composed a tika on the Bhashya written by Sankara and it
is known as Bhashyatippani.
Vidyaranya's commentary on this Upanishad is called Aitareyadipika.
Upanishad Brahmendra yogi of the 18th century wrote a Tika in the name of Bhashya Vivarana. A scholarly work, it is available in Adyar library.
Ramarayakavi authored Vedantamukthavali in which he gave the essence of Aitareyopanishad using Sardula metre.

Here is a wonderful sloka of Ramaraya from this Upanishad..

जीवस्सन् पुरुषो यथाSविशदिदं सा ब्रह्मारन्ध्रात्मना
ख्याता मूर्ध्नि शिशोश्च दृश्यत इयं तन्नन्दनं देहिन: |
भित्वैनामनया प्रयाति पुरुषो य: प्राप्य स ब्रह्मण:
स्थानं सद्भुवि जन्मने ननु पुनर्नावर्तते मुच्यते|

(When Almighty enters the body through a queer entrance on the head (Brahma randhra), the product is known as Jiva. If and when the entrant exits through the same route, Jiva ceases to exist; in other words, there will be no trauma of births and deaths.)

The following is a list of Telugu translations of the Upanishad :
Atmananda yogi who lived in the last quarter of the 19th century translated the Aitareyopanishad in easy flowing verses and songs closely following the lines of Sankara.
Pisapati Narayanasastry of the 19th century translated
Aitareyopanishad into chaste Telugu.
V.Sundara sarma of the 20th century wrote word-for-word meaning and paraphrase of the Aitreyopanishad following the views of Sankara.

Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu of the 20th century translated the
Upanishad into Telugu. This is considered to be comprehensive and gives the central idea of Vedanta expounded by Sankara.


The Chandogyopanishad is one of the oldest Upanishads. It is also one of the most authoritative Upanishads belonging to Samaveda. The most significant feature of this Upanishad is the oneness of the Jiva and Brahman (Tattvamasi) meaning"Thou art that".
We note that Swetaketu's getting formal education, prevalent at that time,was inadequate. In fathoming the depths of Atmajnana he was enlightened by his father who filled the gap with the terse statement 'Tattvamasi', The supreme knowledge he imparted to Swetaketu is summed up in Chandogyopanishad.

Sankaracharya wrote a commentary on this Upanishad. His commentary is known as Chandogyopanishadbhashyam.
Anandagiri wrote a commentary on Sankara's Bhashya of this Upanishad.

Upanishadbrahmendra yogi authored a work Chandogyarijuvivaranam which is a commentary on the Chandogyopanishad.

Bellamkonda Ramarayakavi wrote Vedantamukthavali in which the purport of Chandogyopanishad is explained in Sardula metre.  A beautiful sloka of Ramaraya.runs:

स्वर्णस्य प्रतिबोधनेन सकलं केयूरहारादिकं
सौवर्णं विदितं भवेद्धि विकृतं मिथ्यैव तद्धेम सत् |
विज्ञानादसितायसश्च सकलं कार्ष्णायसं वैकृतं
विज्ञातं हि भवेच्च तत्र विकृतिं मिथ्यैव सत्यं स्वयम् ||

(Just as we can know the nature of gold ornaments if we know about the metal gold and of black iron materials from a knowledge of the basic black iron, one can know all the manifestations of Atman if Atman as it is, is realized. The hidden idea is, that changes such as from the metal gold to jewellery and so on are just a myth.)

Here are some Telugu translations :

Pisupati Narayana Sastry translated Chandogyopanishad in his work Andhradwadasopanishattulu.
Nori Srinatha Venkata Somayajulu translated this Upanishad in chaste Telugu.


This Upanishad belongs to the Vajasaneyi School of the Yajurveda. This is perhaps older than the oldest Upanishads we have pointed out earlier. Moreover, this Upanishad is found in two recensions the Kanva and the
Madhyandina. It contains the highest teachings about Brahman as the one without a second. Sankaracharya wrote a commentary on this Upanishad. His commentary was followed by many scholars among whom some belong to Andhradesa.

Anandagiri's Bhashyavyakhya.
Vidyaranya's Vartikasara.
` Upanishadbrahmendrayogi's Brihadaranyakavivaranam is a scholarly work which gives the essence of the entire Upanishad.
Bellamkonda Ramarayakavi's commentary is in poetry form and gives the gist of the Brihadaranyakopanishad.

Here is a stanza composed by Ramaraya which describes the nature of Brahman:

ऐतत्तत्पदमक्षरं यदतमो स्थूलं च सूक्ष्मं च न
ह्रस्वं नायतमप्यभूतमगुणं न ज्योतिरच्छायकम् |
अप्राणं सदमात्रमन्तरहितं संगातिगं नेन्द्रियं
न स्वान्तं न सुखं निरन्तरमगं चाबोध्यमेकं बृहत् ||
(Atman is so subtle that it is devoid of almost all usual physical attributes such as size, shape, weight, senses and bodily tissues and is not dominated by anything, but it is Omnipresent and is just one and one only.)

We may conclude this chapter with alist of Telugu commentaries on this Upanishad:
Pisupati Narayana Sastry's translation, Andhradwadasopanishattulu,
a translation of Brihadaranyakopanishad one of the12 Upanishads.
Suri Ramakoti Sastry's translation of Brihadaranyaka is in six volumes, each volume consisting of eight Adhyayas.
Charla Ganapathi Sastry's interesting translation is worthy to be mentioned.

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