Dr. Chilakamarthi Durgaprasada Rao
1. Introduction to Darsanas:
It is a natural tendency of every living being to desire happiness and avoid misery. They therefore strive towards that end to the maximum possible extent. But on close observation and personal experience, it is seen that the happiness we acquire in day to day life is subjected to gradation. More over it is always accompanied by some elements of misery. We can even say that there is no pleasure in this world which is not mixed with misery. And the pleasure we get by possessing some thing will certainly cause misery when we loose it. Even though the joy of heavenly sojourn is pure and not effected by any element of misery, it is not everlasting. This being so, it is imperative on the part of the wise to opt for the permanent and absolute happiness. Through the experience of the seers and saints, it is known that man can get real and absolute happiness on the realization of his own nature and it alone is to be the sole aim of human life. Apastamba, the author of Grihya-Sutras asserts that आत्मलाभान्न परं विद्यते किञ्चित् (Atmalabhat na astambaparam vidyete kinchit) which means that there is no higher purpose of human existence than knowing one’s own self. Humanity in its eternal pursuit of happiness through self realization has created Sastras, literature and fine arts.
The Philosophical discussions and theories established by famous acharyas are named Darsanas. Etymologically, Darsana connotes that through which Atman can be seen [realized]. It suits every Darsana since the exponents of every Darsana were convinced that that was the actual Atman. These Darshanas are of two kinds, Heterodox and Orthodox. Those systems, which do not accept the testimony of the Veda are known as heterodox Darsanas, while which do are orthodox Darsanas.
Charvaka, Jaina and the four schools of Buddhistic thought, namely, Madhyamika, Yogachara, Sautrantika, and Vaibhashika are heterodox systems, while the orthodox systems are Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaiseshika, Purva-Mimamsa and Uttara-Mimamsa.
Systems ---- Founders
I. CHARVAKA ----- Brihaspati
II. BAUDDHA ----- Bhagavan Buddha
III. JAINA ---- 24Tirthankaras
1. SANKHYA--- Kapila
2. YOGA --- Patanjali
3. NYAYA----- Gautama
4. VAISESHIKA--- Kanada
5. PURVA-MIMAMSA--- Jaimini
6. UTTARA-MIMAMSA--- Badarayana also known as Vyasa
(To be continued)