Tuesday, January 3, 2017

‘Charucharya’of Kshemendra (A treatise on moral education)

‘Charucharya’of Kshemendra
(A treatise on moral education)

Dr. Chilakamarthi Durgaprasada Rao

                                   Education is for right conduct.       

    In days of yore, India followed the Gurukula system of education and students used to study in Gurukulas under the guidance of able and efficient teachers. The word Antevasi (Student) which is described as ' ante vasati iti antevasi' ( one who sits / lives near a guru) proves that the gurukula system of education was popular in those days.

 Keeping in view the comprehensive development of the students, teachers used to impart morals not only by preaching but also through practice. They used to teach many subjects in addition to the main branch of knowledge for the integral development of the individual.  The word Acharya ( Teacher) means 'Acharati iti acharyah' ( one who practises good manners), 'Acharam grahayati iti acharyah' ( one who teaches good behavior to his students) and 'Achinoti arthan iti acharyah' ( one who goes on collecting material pertaining to knowledge). All these three qualities are worth possessing by an ideal teacher.

But now time has changed. The aim and goal of education has also changed. The dominant involvement of the government in the field of education, unrealistic expectations of the parents, indifferent attitude of the teachers and the easy-going nature of the students have thrown the entire system into out of gear. As a result, both the academic and moral standards have nose-dived. Education without morality is of no use. Here sastras declare thus:
 The Vedas do not help the man who has no practice of righteous ways, even though they are studied together with all the six branches (Siksha, Vyakarana, Chandas, Nirukta,  Jyotisha and Kalpa). They leave him at the supreme movement of death, as full fledged birds their nest.

आचारहीनं न पुनन्ति वॆदायद्यप्यधीता: सह षड्भिरंगै:
छन्दांस्येनं मृत्युकाले त्यजन्ति नीडं शकुन्ता इव जातपक्षा:


 AachaaraheenaM na punanti vedaah
Yadyapyadheetaah saha Shadbhirangaih
ChandaamsyenaM mRutyukaale tyajanti
NeedaM shakuntaa iva jaatapakShaah

    So it is the bounden duty and sublime obligation of every one to set things right. Since morality is the back bone of the society we should give importance to value based education.
In Sanskrit Literature, there are a number of treatises on moral education of which Kshemendra’s Charucharya is worth mentioning. This treatise contains dos and don’ts by giving ample examples extracted from our ancient scriptures. Kshmendra was not only a great poet but also a great critic and a great rhetorician. He was the author of many works. He lived in 11th century A.D. This book contains 100 poems.

1. श्रीलाभसुभग: सत्यासक्त: स्वर्गापवर्गद:
    जयतात् त्रिजगत्पूज्य: सदाचार इवाच्युत:

 In this benedictory stanza the God is identified with sadachara i.e., good behavior.

Good behavior is like Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu associated with (Lakshmi). Similarly good behavior is endowed with prosperity. Lord Vishnu is associated with satya (Satyabhama). Good behavior is also associated in Satya (truth). Lord Vishnu gives heaven (swarga) as well as salvation (Moksha). Simalarly good behavior also leads one to Swarga and also Moksha. Lord Vishnu is praised by these three worlds. Good behavior is also honored by three worlds. There fore, let Lord Vishnu like good behavior be glorious and victorious.

श्रीलाभसुभग: = లక్ష్మిని పొందుటవలన సౌందర్యవంతుడును (మంచినడివడి సంపదలు చేకూరుస్తుంది)   सत्यासक्त: =సత్యభామతో కూడినవాడును (మంచినడవడి సత్యం తో కూడి ఉంటుంది )   स्वर्गापवर्गद: = స్వర్గాన్ని మోక్షాన్ని ప్రసాది౦చేవాడు (మంచి నడవడి స్వర్గాన్ని , మోక్షాన్ని చేకూరుస్తు౦ది)
त्रिजगत्पूज्य:= ముల్లోకములచేత పూజింపబడేవాడు (అగు) ( మంఛి నడవడి మూడులోకాల్లోను గౌరవం పొ౦దుతుంది)   अच्युत:  = అచ్యుతుడు (విష్ణువు )
सदाचार इव =సదాచారమువలె  जयतात्= జయము పొందు గాక .
శ్రీ మహాలక్ష్మితో కూడినవాడు, సత్యభామాసహితుడు , *స్వర్గాపవర్గ ప్రదాత , త్రిలోకపూజ్యుడు అగు అచ్యుతుడు సదాచారమువలె జయము పొందు గాక.
ఇక్కడ భగవంతునకు సదాచారములో అభేదం చెప్పబడింది .
* స్వర్గం అశాశ్వతమైనది. అపవర్గం అంటే మోక్షం , అది శాశ్వతమైనది 


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